Cardiac Enzymes Analysis
The Cardiac Enzymes Test is one of the most common blood test used to determine if a patient is currently or has recently suffered a heart attack or acute coronary syndrome, it is also helpful to determine injuries to the heart caused by an infection.
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What Is a Cardiac
There are several types of cardiac enzymes analysis that are designed to measures levels of certain enzymes and proteins that are linked to heart muscle injuries. These tests measure the levels of the enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CPK), also called creatine kinase (CK), and a more specific form of this enzyme called CK-MB, as well as levels of the proteins myoglobin, troponin I (TnI) and troponin T (TnT). Low levels of these markers are found in the blood, but when the heart muscle is injured as is the case in a heart attack, these enzymes and proteins are released from the heart muscle cells causing their levels to rise.
What is Cardiac Enzyme Analysis Used For?
Patients who come to the emergency room complaining of chest pain, difficulty breathing, nausea, and sweating will most likely be prescribed a cardiac enzyme analysis to determine if the patient is suffering a heart attack.
Emergency room procedures for patients complaining of chest pain will always involve the doctor’s symptom evaluation and the results of the cardiac enzymes analysis. The test alone is not enough to diagnose damage to the heart muscle given that the enzyme CPK is also released by other damaged tissues. Therefore, emergency doctors will rely on a combination of physical examination, EKG, and cardiac enzyme analysis results to determine the best course of treatment.
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The Cardiac Enzymes Analysis Test results may be affected if the patient suffers from or is taking one or more of the following:
- Diseases such as muscular dystrophy, hypothyroidism, certain autoimmune diseases, or Reye disease.
- Heart conditions such as myocarditis, and some forms of cardiomyopathy.
- Emergency cardiac treatment such as CPR, cardioversion, or defibrillation.
- Intramuscular injections.
- Cholesterol-lowering medications (Statins)
- Recent strenuous exercise.
- Heavy alcohol consumption.
- Recent surgery or serious injury.
- Kidney disease.
How Important is Cardiac
Enzyme Analysis in the Emergency Room?
For patients who present themselves to the emergency room with chest discomfort and other symptoms consistent with a heart attack or acute coronary syndrome will need to have their cardiac biomarkers tested.
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